Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo served as president of the Republic of the Philippines from 2001 to 2009. She was elected as senator in 1992 and 1995. In 1998, she became the country’s first female vice president, and was sworn in as the 14th president on January 20, 2001, by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. after the Supreme Court unanimously declared the position of president vacant. She was the second woman to be swept into the presidency by a peaceful People Power revolution (EDSA II). She is the first person to hold elective office in the country after finishing her term as president, having won with an overwhelming majority as representative of the second district of Pampanga in 2010, a position held previously by her father Diosdado and her son Mikey.
Born in April 5, 1947, Macapagal was the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal and Dr. Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal. During the presidency of Diosdado Macapagal, the Philippines was second only to Japan in economic progress in Asia.
Macapagal-Arroyo studied at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., and graduated magna cum laude from Assumption College with a bachelor’s degree in commerce. She later earned a master’s degree in economics from the Ateneo de Manila University, and a master’s degree and Ph.D. in economics from the University of the Philippines. Macapagal-Arroyo began her professional career as a teacher at Assumption College. She later became an assistant professor at the Ateneo de Manila University, and a senior lecturer at the UP School of Economics.
Macapagal-Arroyo entered government service as an assistant secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry during the Aquino Administration in 1987. She also became executive director of the Garments and Textile Export Board, steering the garments industry to become the top net dollar earner for the country, and rose to the rank of Undersecretary of Trade and Industry. During her tenure in the Philippines Senate (1992 to 1998), she authored 55 laws on economic and social reform and was named “Outstanding Senator” several times. When she was elected vice president, President Joseph Estrada appointed her concurrently as secretary of social welfare and development, a post she held until her resignation from the Cabinet on October 12, 2000.
- San Juan, Phillipines
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- University of Philipines
- Political Party:
- Lakas - Kampi - CMD
Philippines House of Representatives, 2010-present
President of the Republic of the Philippines, 2001-2010
Vice president of the Philippines, 1998-2001
Senator of the Philippines, 1992-1998
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- Mindanao Peace and Security Summit - July 10, 2007
- Towards a Community of Democracies- June 26, 2000
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